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Volume 30, Issue 4 (winter 2009)


Barbara Rawlings and Simon McArdle

ABSTRACT: No abstract.

Measuring Personal Resources in a Therapeutic Community-based Treatment System: A Reliability and Validity Study of the Dutch Version of PREDI-Short Diagnosis

Veerle Raes, Wouter Vanderplasschen, Maarten De Wilde, Stijn Delputte, Veerle Soyez and Eric Broekaert

ABSTRACT: In therapeutic community-based programmes, instruments are also used to structure treatment. In line with the positive view of change, the need for a tool measuring personal resources was observed. The diagnostic system PREDI (Psychosoziales Ressourcenorientierter Diagnostiksystem) was developed to measure personal capacities and motivational aspects in 16 life areas. This instrument was translated into Dutch and implemented in a small sample (n=73) in the TC-based treatment system ‘De Sleutel’. The aim of this study was to test the internal consistency and validity of the Dutch version. Clients’ personal resources and motivation ratings showed Cronbach’s alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients >.80. Factor analyses showed four interpretable factors for the assessment of personal resources and motivation, which were close to but different from the original German PREDI. Evaluating convergent validity with EuropASI, it appeared that PREDI-personal resources’ assessment is measuring different aspects in the same life areas as EuropASI. More correspondence was found with PREDI-motivation assessment and EuropASI need-for-help. It was concluded that PREDI is a valid and reliable complementary tool to EuropASI for practice to focus on personal resources, and for research to evaluate the use of instruments in TC-based programmes.

Motivating Young People Towards Success: Evaluation of a Motivational Interviewing-Integrated Treatment Programme for COD Clients in a Residential Therapeutic Community

Stefanie Klag, Frances O’Callaghan, Peter Creed and Melanie Zimmer-Gembeck

ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in the treatment of chronic substance users with high rates of comorbidity with mental health disorders (COD clients). Employing a quasi-experimental design to compare the effectiveness of standard drug and alcohol treatment with an MI-integrated approach, results revealed that the MI-integrated treatment approach was associated with improved retention in terms of keeping clients in the programme, a more autonomous motivational attitude towards treatment, and more positive and stronger treatment outcomes. These findings suggest that the MI-integrated approach was more effective in the treatment of COD clients compared to standard drug and alcohol treatment.

Connect: Residents’ Experiences of a Unique Therapeutic Community

Yvette Brown and Jonathan Rousseau

ABSTRACT: This paper provides a unique insight into Connect, a UK-based democratic therapeutic community that uses transactional analysis (TA) as its main theoretical framework. The paper explores how TA is incorporated into Connect, drawing on participants’ experiences within therapy and once discharged. Eight participants (seven females, one male) who had completed their therapy were interviewed about their experience of Connect using a semi-structured format. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the data. A number of sub-themes were found and organised into three main themes: ‘Therapeutic Environment’, ‘Therapeutic Attainment’ and ‘Leaving Connect’. This paper builds on the small amount of qualitative research of residents’ experiences of TC living. Limitations of the study are acknowledged and suggestions made for future research.

The Illusion of Reality Some Thoughts with Maxwell Jones

Dennie Briggs

ABSTRACT: Consciousness was a recurrent theme in the life and work of Maxwell Jones. He was constantly searching for ways to alter consciousness and reach alternative states, not through hallucinogens or practices such as firewalking. Rather, he eventually took the path of the mystics and sought a more transcendental reality than that which he had experienced in his medical and psychiatric training. That route led him to embrace Jungian concepts such as archetypes and the collective unconscious. He found allies in diverse areas, biologist Rupert Sheldrake’s morphic fields or pooled memories, as one example; however, many of his colleagues were doubtful.

The vignette in this communication attempts to give a glimpse into Max’s perspective on consciousness, including a discussion with poet John Maher on the implications, bringing Max’s philosophy to bear on therapeutic communities.

Nursing at the Scene of the Crime

Rebecca Neeld and Tom Clarke

ABSTRACT: Nurses caring for mothers accompanied by children not only observe but also intersect their patients’ abusive and neglectful behaviour towards their children. Thus, nurses experience to a degree the traumas that impact on the child. Nurses, like children, hold on to what is good with the mother (Blum 1981). In order to maintain hope, and possibly to avoid separation, there are occasions when nurses will turn a blind eye to abuse.

It is this re-enactment of trauma, either of what the mother experiences as a child or of what the mother is attempting to repeat with her own child, that the nurse tries to process and resolve within the nurse-patient relationship in order that the relationship can develop along a different route.

What Does The Volcano Have To Say? Integrative Arts Psychotherapy in a Therapeutic Community Setting

Jane Stewart

ABSTRACT: Upon entering therapy, many people find themselves unable to communicate their most powerful emotional experiences in a satisfying way. Many people either lack the vocabulary to articulate their feelings, or it may be that there are simply no words. Art and metaphor provide an alternative to words. Integrative Arts Psychotherapy (IAP) provides opportunities to communicate emotional experience using both verbal and nonverbal metaphor, via a range of art forms.

Therapeutic Communities in Prisons: Addiction and Democratic Therapeutic Communities for Offenders in Custody in the UK

Barbara Rawlings

ABSTRACT: The Prison Service of England and Wales provides two kinds of therapeutic community (TC), one based on the ‘democratic’ model developed originally at the Henderson Hospital and one based on the self-help model, developed originally at Synanon in California. Both models have evolved considerably over the years, but their roots are still discernible in current practice. In the prisons, the differences between the two are enshrined in their different Theory Manuals (HM Prison Service 2007 and 2008), on the basis of which each model has been accredited by the Ministry of Justice to operate in prisons. Part One of this paper outlines the two models and describes a different therapeutic focus of each. Part Two describes how aspects of the prison context impact on the service the TCs can provide.


Robert A. Neimeyer (Ed.) (2009) Constructivist Psychotherapy. Published by Routledge (2009) P/B, pp. 150, price P/B Not included, ISBN 978-0-415-44234-3.Reviewed by Simon McArdle.

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